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Physician Specialty Glossary

Allergy and immunology - A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of an individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.

Anesthesiology - A medical specialty concerned with purposeful depression of nerve function, characterized by loss of feeling or sensation, usually the result of pharmacologic action by anesthetics, and induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures. This specialty is also concerned with treating pain associated with diseases/conditions.

Anti-Aging Medicine -  A medical specialty concerned with detecting, preventing, and treating aging related disease and to promote research into methods to retard and optimize the human aging process.

Bariatrics - A medical specialty that diagnoses, treats and manages obesity, overweight and weight-related health problems

Cardiology - A medical subspecialty concerned with the study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions. Cardiovascular specialists are trained in diseases of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels and they manage complex cardiac conditions such as heart attacks and life-threatening, abnormal heartbeat rhythms.

Cardiovascular Surgery - A surgical specialty concerned with the heart and major blood vessels of the chest.

Child & Adolescent Psychiatry - The medical specialty concerned with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders, addictive disorders, emotional disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, sexual and gender identity disorders, and adjustment disorders in children and adolescents.

Colon and Rectal surgery - A surgical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the intestinal tract, colon, rectum, anal canal, and perianal area by medical and surgical means. The specialty is also concerned with other organs and tissues (e.g., liver, urinary, and female reproductive system) involved with primary intestinal disease.

Critical care -A subspecialty of medicine concerned with the diagnosis, treatment, and support of patients with multiple organ dysfunction (i.e., critically ill) during a medical emergency or crisis.

Dentistry - The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.

Dermatology -  A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.

Diagnostic Radiology - The use of various radiology techniques, mostly noninvasive, to diagnose an array of medical conditions. Diagnostic radiology includes the use of x-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound.

Ear, Nose & Throat - A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, throat, respiratory and upper alimentary systems, and related structures of the head and neck.

Electrophysiology - The study of electrical activity in the heart.

Emergency medicine - A medical specialty concerned with resuscitation, transportation, and care from the point of injury or beginning of illness through the hospital or other emergency treatment facility.

Endocrinology - A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the internal (endocrine) system (e.g., thyroid and adrenal glands). This branch of medicine also deals with diabetes, metabolic and nutritional disorders, pituitary diseases, and menstrual and sexual problems.

Family Medicine - A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.

Gastroenterology -  A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).

General Surgery - Specialty of medicine that deals with disease or injury by operative means.

Genetics - Specialty of medicine that studies heredity to determine how qualities or traits are transmitted from parents to children.

Geriatrics -The subspecialty of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including, but not limited to, the clinical problems of senescence and senility.

Gynecologic Oncology - Specialty of medicine that treats cancers of the female reproductive organs.

Gynecology - Specialty of medicine focused on the care and management of the female reproductive system.

Head and Neck Surgery - Surgery of the head and neck, related to the treatment of diseases and disorders of the ear, nose and throat.

Hematology -A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.

Hepatology - Specialty concerned with the functions and disorders of the liver.

Infectious Diseases - A subspecialty of medicine concerned with illnesses caused by microorganisms of all types in all organs.

Internal Medicine - A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems in adults, with the provision of long-term, comprehensive care in the office and the hospital settings, managing common and complex illnesses of adolescents, adults, and the elderly.

Interventional Radiology -  Radiology specialty that uses various radiology techniques (such as x-ray, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds) to place wires, tubes, or other instruments inside a patient to diagnose or treat an array of conditions.

Neonatology - Medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the newborn infant.

Nephrology - A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.

Neurology - A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.

Neurosurgery - A surgical specialty concerned with the operative and non-operative management of disorders of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including supporting structures and vascular supply; the evaluation and treatment of pathological processes that modify function or activity of the nervous system, and the operative and non-operative management of pain.

Nuclear Medicine - A subspecialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in pharmaceutical form.

Nurse Midwife - Registered nurse trained to manage and care for newborns and women before, during and after delivery.

Nurse Practitioner - The profession concerned with the provision of care and services essential to the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health by attending to a patient's needs.

Obstetrics and Gynecology - The medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and puerperium; the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract; and female endocrinology and reproductive physiology. This physician may serve as a primary care source for women.

Occupational Medicine - The study, prevention, and treatment of workplace injuries and occupational diseases and with the promotion of optimal health and safety in the workplace.

Oncology - A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.

Ophthalmology - A specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.

Optometry - The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power, and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.

Oral Surgery - Dental specialty concerned with surgical procedures in and about the mouth and jaws

Orthodontics - Dental specialty concerned with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of bite abnormalities or facial irregularities.

Orthopedics -A surgical specialty that utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.

Otology - A specialty concerned with the ear.

Pain Management - Surgery, procedure, or other treatment designed to reduce pain and help the patient achieve a reasonable quality of life and ability to function.

Pancreatic and Hepatobiliary Surgery - A surgical specialty concerned the liver, pancreas, bile ducts and gallbladder.

Pathology -A medical specialty concerned with the causes and nature of disease including diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment through knowledge gained by the laboratory application of the biological, chemical, and physical sciences. A pathologist uses information gathered from the microscopic examination of tissue specimens, cells, body fluids, and clinical laboratory tests on secretions.

Pediatrics - A medical specialty concerned with the physical, emotional, and social health of children from birth to young adulthood. Care encompasses a broad spectrum of health services. Neonatology is also covered under this specialty.

Perinatology - The branch of obstetrics concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the mother and the fetus before and after birth.

Pharmacy - A clinical specialty concerned with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.

Physiatry - A medical specialty concerned with the restoration of a person who has been disabled due to disease, disorder or injury.  Also known as physical medicine and rehabilitation.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation -A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatuses, and manipulation in rehabilitating patients who are physically diseased, injured, or recovering from elective surgery (e.g., hip replacement) to the maximum degree possible. Physicians practicing this specialty are Physiatrists.

Plastic Surgery -A surgical specialty that deals with the repair, reconstruction, or replacement of physical defects of form or function involving the skin, musculoskeletal system, craniomaxillofacial structures, extremities, breast and trunk, and external genitalia.

Podiatry - A profession concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders, injuries and anatomic defects of the foot.

Psychiatry -The medical specialty concerned with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders, addictive disorders, emotional disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, sexual and gender identity disorders, and adjustment disorders.

Psychology - A clinical profession concerned with recognizing and treating behavior disorders.

Pulmonology - A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the respiratory system, especially the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.

Radiation Oncology - The specialty concerned with the therapeutic application of radiant energy and its modifiers, including the study and management of disease, especially malignant tumors.

Radiology - The specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

Reproductive Endocrinology - An ob/gyn subspecialty concerned with managing reproductive endocrinology and infertility.

Rheumatology - A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures that pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders (e.g., arthritis).

Sleep Medicine - The specialty concerned with conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors.

Sports Medicine -A subspecialty responsible for continuous care, enhancement of health and fitness, and prevention of injury and illness to an individual engaged in physical exercise (sports).

Surgery - A medical specialty concerned with manual or operative procedures used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, injuries, or deformities. This specialty is usually responsible for the comprehensive management of the trauma victim and the critically ill surgical patient.

Surgical Critical Care - Medical specialty concerned with evaluation and management of surgical patients with critical illness.

Thoracic surgery - A surgical specialty concerned with the operative, perioperative, and critical care of patients with pathologic conditions within the chest. Included is the surgical care of coronary artery disease, cancers of the lung, esophagus and chest wall, abnormalities of the trachea, abnormalities of the great vessels and heart valves, congenital anomalies, tumors of the mediastinum, and diseases of the diaphragm. Airway management and chest injury are within the scope of this specialty.

Transplantation - Surgical placement of a whole or partial organ from one body to another for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ with a working one from the donor. Organ donors can be living, or cadaveric (dead).

Urogynecology - The evaluation and treatment of conditions that affect the female pelvic organs, and the muscles and connective tissue that support the organs. Urogynecology involves the diagnosis and treatment of urinary incontinence and female pelvic floor disorders.

Urology - A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. This specialty also includes the management of benign and malignant medical and surgical disorders of the genitourinary system and the adrenal gland.